Polityka akademicka po wprowadzeniu stanu wojennego

baner weryfikacja

źródło : Stan wojenny w dokumentach władz PRL (1980-1983), wybór, wstęp i oprac. Bogusław Kopka, Grzegorz Majchrzak, (seria „Dokumenty”, t. 6) – IPN. Warszawa 2001

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  1. Polska nauka to badania otaczajace atomowach planow Gierka: Praca ostatniego polskiego reaktora ze sciezki technologii ZSSR (MARIA) 2008 http://www.iea.cyf.gov.pl/harmonogram_pracy.html anonymous 02.06.2009, 18:28 Odpowiedz Gierek planuje budowe Polskiej bomby wodorowej; ZSSR rozprowadza technologie atomowe > Polska bomba atomowa > > Według planów Edwarda Gierka Polska miała stać się > atomowym mocarstwem > > W latach 70. rozpoczęto zakrojony na szeroką skalę program > budowy bomby termojądrowej, który miał zakończyć się próbnym, > podziemnym wybuchem w Bieszczadach. Z planów tych nic nie > wyszło. Polska zamiast atomowym mocarstwem, stała się miejscem > składowanych na naszym terytorium radzieckich, nuklearnych > głowic… > > Wspaniały pomysł > > Za początek prac nad polską bombą termojądrową należy uznać 1968 > rok i memoriał dr. Zbigniewa Puzewicza, szefa Katedry Podstaw > Radiotechniki Wojskowej Akademii Technicznej, sugerujący, że możliwe > jest przeprowadzenie syntezy termojądrowej przy użyciu laserów > dużej mocy. Sprawą zainteresował się generał profesor Sylwester > Kaliski, ówczesny komendant Wojskowej Akademii Technicznej. Obaj > panowie postanowili potwierdzić realność tej teorii. Udało się to w > 1970 roku. Wtedy to Puzewicz i Kaliski uczestniczyli w sympozjum w > Montrealu, gdzie wysłuchali wykładu Edwarda Tellera, ojca > amerykańskiej bomby wodorowej, a później inicjatora koncepcji > reaganowskich gwiezdnych wojen. Teller dowodził, że można > przeprowadzić syntezę termojądrową za pomocą lasera. To > ostatecznie zadecydowało o rozpoczęciu prac nad polską bombą > termojądrową. Prowadzono je w specjalnie wzniesionej hali WAT w > warszawskiej dzielnicy Wola. Od 1972 roku prace kontynuowano w > Instytucie Plazmy i Laserowej Mikrosyntezy. Wzniesiono nową halę i > specjalne budynki. Jak to bywało w czasach PRL-u, nie obyło się bez > elementów humorystycznych, do których niewątpliwie należy zaliczyć > otoczenie nowych budowli kilkumetrowym ziemnym nasypem, który > miał „chronić” okolicę w razie przypadkowego wybuchu. > > Sen o potędze > > Do realizacji projektu polskiej bomby termojądrowej zaangażowano > olbrzymie środki finansowe. Generał Wojciech Jaruzelski, wówczas > minister obrony narodowej – jak sam swego czasu mi mówił – „o > projekcie z Edwardem Gierkiem nie rozmawiał, to o nim słyszał”. > Edward Gierek nie szczędził pieniędzy, chciał tylko, aby o próbnej > eksplozji nie dowiedzieli się „radzieccy towarzysze”. W tej sprawie > radził się prof. Romana Neya, w tamtych czasach wiceprezesa Polskiej > Akademii Nauk i eksperta robót podziemnych. Sylwester Kaliski, znając > obawy Gierka, wmówił mu, że można przeprowadzić w wybudowanej > w Bieszczadach sztolni próbną eksplozję tak, iż nikt na świecie nie > wykryje wstrząsów sejsmicznych. Oczywiście była to bzdura, ale ocaliła > ona projekt. Na potrzeby prac nad bombą unikalne przyrządy > badawcze, materiały i mechanizmy objęte embargiem, sprowadził z > zachodu polski wywiad. Według badającego swego czasu tę sprawę > dziennikarza, dziś naczelnego magazynu „Raport – Wojskowa Technika > Obronność” Wojciecha Łuczaka, udało się nawet sprowadzić z USA do > Warszawy słynne „krytrony”, czyli superczułe przełączniki elektroniczne > sterujące procesami uruchamiania ładunków wybuchowych w > niewyobrażalnie krótkich ułamkach sekundy. Urządzenia te są > niezbędne w konstrukcji zapalnika bomby atomowej. „Gdybym w > jednym z warszawskich gabinetów sam nie trzymał takiego urządzenia > w ręce, nigdy bym nie uwierzył, że jest to możliwe” – usłyszałem od > Łuczaka. > To wszystko, oczywiście, kosztowało bajońskie pieniądze. Oficjalnie > zaksięgowane wydatki szły w miliony dolarów, jednak nikt nie policzy > tych, które nawet w CIA nazywa się „czarną dziurą”. Niektóre osoby > zaangażowane w projekt twierdzą, że projekt polskiej bomby > wodorowej pochłonął tak wielkie środki, iż mógł się przyczynić do > załamania naszej gospodarki w drugiej połowie lat siedemdziesiątych. > Jedno nie ulega wątpliwości. Edward Gierek chciał, poprzez > wprowadzenie Polski do ekskluzywnego klubu atomowego, > potwierdzić, że prawdziwe są propagandowe slogany mówiące o > ówczesnej PRL jako o mocarstwie będącym 10. potęgą przemysłową > świata. Nie bez znaczenia był też fakt zapatrzenia się przez Gierka na > politykę atomową Francji, którą zapewne chciał naśladować. > > Wielkie rozczarowanie > > Polska bomba termojądrowa miała być dziecinnie prosta. Wystarczyć > miały wtryskiwacze deuteru i trytu oraz kulminacyjne ładunki > wybuchowe, takie jakie służą do przebijania pancerza czołgu, > podłączone do zdobytego przez nasz wywiad krytrona. Decydującym > elementem był laser mający dostarczyć w odpowiednim ułamku > sekundy energię wystarczającą do zapoczątkowania syntezy > termojądrowej. Niestety, w polskich warunkach moc lasera mogła > osiągnąć tylko 1 kilodżul. W tym czasie w Moskwie użyto > 20-kilodżulowego lasera do podobnego eksperymentu, a w USA aż > 100-kilodżulowego, jednak bez rezultatu. Najnowsze badania > naukowe dowodzą, że aby wywołać syntezę termojądrową, należy > użyć lasera o mocy 10 tysięcy kilodżuli. Tymczasem nad polskim > projektem atomowym pojawiły się jeszcze inne chmury. Pomimo > wysiłków polskiej strony o prowadzonych w Warszawie pracach nad > bombą dowiedział się radziecki wywiad. Rosjanie, prowadząc podobne > eksperymenty, zdawali sobie sprawę, że tą metodą nie da się > osiągnąć sukcesu i czując się niezagrożeni w swoim monopolu na broń > atomową, udawali, że o niczym nie wiedzą. Pewność w tej kwestii > narusza jednak śmierć prof. Sylwestra Kaliskiego w dramatycznych > okolicznościach. Zginął on w wypadku samochodowym, prowadząc > swego fiata mirafiori. Część osób znających Kaliskiego uważa, że > wypadek z jego udziałem był tylko kwestią czasu, ponieważ profesor > kiepsko prowadził, jeżdżąc ze zbyt dużą prędkością. Niektórzy jednak > uważają, że mirafiori, serwisowane w rządowych warsztatach, zostało > uszkodzone przez radziecki wywiad. Co było przyczyną katastrofy, nie > dowiemy się już nigdy. Pewne jest natomiast, że śmierć prof. > Kaliskiego była końcem polskiego programu budowy bomby > termojądrowej. > > Atomowy taksówkarz > > Na początku lat 60. zapadły decyzje, że Polska zakupi pułk samolotów > myśliwsko-bombowych Su-7 będących nosicielami broni jądrowej. W > 1965 roku stacjonujący w Bydgoszczy 5. Pomorski Pułk Lotnictwa > Myśliwsko-Bombowego przezbrojono w te odrzutowce. 10 i 11 marca > 1968 roku ćwiczył on z 11. Dywizją Pancerną tworzenie tzw. > atomowych korytarzy, przez które na Zachód miały ruszyć dywizje > pancerne Układu Warszawskiego. W planach operacyjnych ZSRR > polskie armie w pierwszych dniach III wojny światowej miały nacierać > przez Lubekę na Danię. Dodajmy, że w czasie wspomnianych ćwiczeń, > w marcu 1968 roku, po raz pierwszy zrzucono bombę IAB-500 > imitującą wybuch bomby atomowej. Piloci wyznaczeni do lotów w > czasie ewentualnego konfliktu nuklearnego z Zachodem musieli być > kawalerami, najlepiej członkami PZPR. Szkolili ich radzieccy > instruktorzy, którzy specjalnie w tym celu przyjeżdżali do Bydgoszczy. > Na jedno ze szkoleń przyleciał razem z nimi nawet specjalny samolot > An-26, który w razie wojny miał dostarczyć atomowe bomby do > polskich samolotów. W 1974 roku polscy piloci byli szkoleni w Lidzie, na > terenie byłego ZSRR, w lataniu na nowoczesnych odrzutowcach Su-20, > posiadających zmienną geometrię skrzydeł. „Polacy ćwiczyli uzbrajanie > samolotów w bomby nuklearne. Potem te same procedury trenowano > na polskim lotnisku w Powidzu, gdzie stacjonowały samoloty > przystosowane do przenoszenia bomb atomowych. Sam glądałem > zakupione przez Polskę w latach 80. samoloty Su-22M4, które > zaopatrzone były w specjalne panele w kabinie pilota, umożliwiające > bojowy zrzut i belki, oraz zamki do podwieszenia 500-kilogramowych > bomb atomowych” – powiedział mi Wojciech Łuczak. Największą > tajemnicą otoczona była sprawa serwisu i konserwacji specjalnej > atomowej amunicji, a także procedury jej przekazania polskiemu > wojsku przez „radzieckich towarzyszy”. Tajemnicą objęte były także > miejsca przechowywania przez wojska radzieckie na terenie naszego > kraju atomowych pocisków dla naszych samolotów. To samo w sobie > było złamaniem polsko-radzieckich porozumień, bowiem PRL nigdy nie > była oficjalnie poinformowana o składowaniu na jej terytorium takiej > broni. Oficjalnie w razie wybuchu wojny lub zagrożenia nią broń taka > miała być dostarczona przez ZSRR do Polski drogą lotniczą. Tymczasem > po wycofaniu się Rosjan z Polski, w Bagiczu, w okolicach Kołobrzegu, w > dawnej bazie rosyjskiej, przypadkiem odkryto ślady składowania > atomowych półtonowych bomb, które wisiały w schronach > samolotowych na zwykłych hakach jak kiełbasa w sklepie mięsnym. > Przypuszcza się, że taktyczne ładunki jądrowe Rosjanie trzymali > również w swoich bazach w: Żaganiu, Toruniu, Brzegu, Szprotawie i > Sypniewie. Według pełnomocnika Ryszarda Kuklińskiego Józefa > Szaniawskiego „od połowy lat 60. Rosjanie składowali broń atomową > na terytorium Polski. Wypowiedzi polskich przywódców: Gomółki, > Gierka, Jaruzelskiego, że w Polsce nie ma broni atomowej, były jedynie > czystą propagandą. Rosjanie zakładali, że wojna w Europie potrwa od > 7 do 18 dni, a do tego konieczne było użycie broni atomowej” – > powiedział mi kilka lat temu Józef Szaniawski. > > Radziecki chłopiec na posyłki > > ZSRR dokonując polskimi samolotami przy użyciu radzieckich głowic > atomowego ataku na Zachód, narażał nasz kraj na odwet, > jednocześnie chroniąc przed atomową ripostą swoje własne > terytorium. Według pragnącego zachować anonimowość płkownika > rezerwy, byłego wykładowcy na Akademii Obrony Narodowej, „wszyscy > doskonale zdawali sobie sprawę, co oznacza wyrąbywanie atomowych > korytarzy dla mających nacierać na Zachód polskich dywizji. W razie > wojny każdy dowódca dywizji zmechanizowanej miał w ciągu dnia > posunąć się naprzód o 60 km. Aby wykonać to zadanie, mógł > zadecydować o dokonaniu na swoim kierunku natarcia kilku uderzeń > atomowych, których wykonanie spoczywało na naszych wojskach > rakietowych i lotnictwie”. > Utworzenie za pomocą broni atomowej „korytarzy” dla nacierających > wojsk pancernych miało w planach umożliwić tak szybkie zajęcie > zachodniej Europy, aby nie zdążyły do niej przybyć z pomocą wojska > amerykańskie. Polska generalicja wiedziała jednak, że NATO > opracowało plan mający nie dopuścić do realizacji takiego scenariusza. > Wojska europejskich członków NATO miały za zadanie powstrzymać > jedynie uderzenie pierwszego rzutu strategicznego wojsk radzieckich > stacjonujących we wschodnich Niemczech oraz armii NRD, CSRS oraz > PRL. W tym czasie maszerujący z terenów obecnej Ukrainy i Białorusi > drugi rzut strategiczny wojsk radzieckich miał zostać zatrzymany na > linii Wisły zmasowanym atakiem atomowym. To pozwoliłoby dotrzeć do > Europy wojskom amerykańskim, zanim osłabiony atomowym ciosem > drugi rzut strategiczny Układu Warszawskiego dotarłby do rejonu walk > toczonych pomiędzy Renem a Łabą. Łatwo można sobie wyobrazić, co > oznaczałoby dla Polski powstrzymanie przez NATO wojsk radzieckich w > środku naszego kraju przy użyciu broni atomowej. Tym bardziej że do > akcji tej użyto by nie kilku głowic, ale większości ze świeżo > zainstalowanych na Zachodzie atomowych rakiet średniego zasięgu > persing, których celem stałyby się m.in. wszystkie mosty na Wiśle, w > tym także na terenie Krakowa i Warszawy. Dzisiaj, kiedy nie istnieje > już Układ Warszawski, a radzieckie czołgi mające zdobywać Europę > rdzewieją z braku pieniędzy w koszarach, przedstawione powyżej > scenariusze przypominają senne koszmary. Niestety, jeszcze 20 lat > temu atomowa apokalipsa była realną groźbą tak dla Europy, jak też > dla naszego kraju. > MIREK BŁACH anonymous 02.06.2009, 17:45 Odpowiedz (6) Komunistyczna Polska w posiadaniu wlasnej energii atomowej: Reaktor EWA w Swierku kolo Otwocka The Ewa Reactor was Poland’s first research nuclear reactor. Its name is derived from the first letters of the Polish words: Eksperymentalny (Experimental), Wodny (Water), and Atomowy (Atomic) as a reference to the biblical Eve. [edit] History It was activated on June 14th, 1958, in the Institute of Nuclear Research (Currently the Atomic Energy Institute) in Otwock near Warsaw. It was deactivated it in February 1995 due to a shortage of uranium for experiments, and reactivated in April of the same year after the acquisition of new fuel. The reactor is currently deactivated and partially dismantled. Ewa was based on the Soviet VVR-S design, had an initial power of 2 MW, was fueled by enriched uranium, and moderated by pressurized water. In 1963 and 1967, the reactor underwent two major overhauls that improved the safety of the reaction and allowed for the use of better enriched fuels. After these changes, the reactor’s power increased first to 4 MW and ultimately to 10 MW. Its primary use was for producing radioactive isotopes. It functioned an average of 3500 hours a year. Because of its design, the reactor is currently considered a potential site for the future site of storage of the spent fuel from the Maria Reactor. [edit] anonymous 02.06.2009, 17:42 Odpowiedz (5) Egzekucja Rosenbergow na krzesle elektrycznym za spisek zeby szpiegowac dla ZSSR Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 28, 1915 – June 19, 1953) were Jewish American communists who were executed in 1953 after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges were in relation to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Their execution was the first of civilians, for espionage, in United States history.[1] Since the execution, decoded Soviet cables have appeared to confirm that Julius acted as a courier and recruiter for the Soviets, but doubts remain about the level of Ethel’s active involvement.[2][3] The decision to execute the Rosenbergs was, and still is, controversial. The other atomic spies that were caught by the FBI were not executed. Ethel’s brother, David Greenglass, who supplied documents to Julius from Los Alamos, served 10 years of his 15 year sentence.[4] Harry Gold served 15 years in Federal prison as the courier for Klaus Fuchs, who supplied much more detailed information to the Soviets on the atomic bomb.[5] Morton Sobell, who was tried with the Rosenbergs, served 17 years and 9 months.[6] In 2008, Sobell admitted he was a spy and confirmed Julius Rosenberg was „in a conspiracy that delivered to the Soviets classified military and industrial information and what the American government described as the secret to the atomic bomb.”[7] Contents [hide] * 1 Background * 2 Trial and conviction * 3 Execution * 4 Post execution o 4.1 Alexandre Feklisov o 4.2 David Greenglass o 4.3 The Rosenbergs’ children o 4.4 2008 document release o 4.5 Memoir of Nikita Khrushchev o 4.6 Morton Sobell * 5 Fictional portrayals * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 Works cited * 9 Further reading * 10 External links [edit] Background Julius Rosenberg was born to a family of Jewish immigrants in New York City on May 12, 1918. Nineteen-twenty census records show that his family lived at 205 East 113th Street when Julius was about 2 years old, but moved to the Lower East Side by the time he was 11 years old. His parents worked in the shops of the Lower East Side, as Julius attended Seward Park High School. Julius eventually became a leader in the Young Communist League where, in 1936, he met Ethel Greenglass, whom he married three years later. He graduated from the City College of New York with a degree in electrical engineering in 1939 and joined the Army Signal Corps in 1940, where he worked on radar equipment. Ethel Greenglass was born on September 28, 1915, in New York City, also to a Jewish family. She was an aspiring actress and singer, but eventually took a secretarial job at a shipping company. She became involved in labor disputes and joined the Young Communist League, USA, where she met Julius. The Rosenbergs had two sons, Robert and Michael, who were adopted by teacher and songwriter Abel Meeropol (and took the Meeropol surname) after their parents’ execution. According to his former NKVD handler, Alexandre Feklisov, Julius Rosenberg was originally recruited by the KGB on Labor Day 1942, by former NKVD spymaster Semyon Semenov.[8] Julius had been introduced to Semenov by Bernard Schuster, a high-ranking member of the Communist Party USA as well as Earl Browder’s personal NKVD liaison, and after Semenov was recalled to Moscow in 1944, his duties were taken over by his apprentice, Feklisov.[8] According to Feklisov, Julius provided thousands of classified reports from Emerson Radio, including a complete proximity fuze, the same design that was used to shoot down Gary Powers’s U-2 in 1960. Under Feklisov’s administration, Julius Rosenberg is said to have recruited sympathetic individuals to the KGB’s service, including Joel Barr, Alfred Sarant, William Perl and Morton Sobell.[9] According to Feklisov’s account, he was supplied by Perl, under Julius Rosenberg’s direction, with thousands of documents from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics including a complete set of design and production drawings for the Lockheed’s P-80 Shooting Star. Feklisov says he learned through Julius that his brother-in-law David Greenglass was working on the top-secret Manhattan Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and used Julius to recruit him.[8] The USSR and the U.S. became allies during World War II after Nazi Germany’s surprise attack on the USSR in 1941, but the U.S. government was highly suspicious of Joseph Stalin’s long-term intentions. Therefore the Americans did not share information or seek assistance from the Soviet Union for the Manhattan Project. However, the Soviets were aware of the project as a result of espionage penetration of the U.S. government and made a number of attempts to infiltrate its operations at the University of California, Berkeley. A number of project members—some high-profile, others lower in rank—did voluntarily give secret information to Soviet agents, many because they were sympathetic to Communism (or the Soviet Union’s role in the war) and did not feel the U.S. should have a monopoly on atomic weapons.[10] After the war, the U.S. continued to protect its nuclear secrets, but the Soviet Union was able to produce its own atomic weapons by 1949. The West was shocked by the speed with which the Soviets were able to stage their first nuclear test, „Joe 1.” It was then discovered in January 1950 that a German refugee theoretical physicist working for the British mission in the Manhattan Project, Klaus Fuchs, had given key documents to the Russians throughout the war. Through Fuchs’ confession, U.S. and United Kingdom intelligence agents were able to make a case against his alleged courier, Harry Gold, who was arrested on May 23, 1950. A former machinist at Los Alamos, Sergeant David Greenglass confessed to having passed secret information on to the USSR through Gold as well. Though he initially denied any involvement by his sister, Ethel Rosenberg, he claimed that her husband, Julius, had convinced his wife to recruit him while on a visit to him in Albuquerque, New Mexico in 1944 and that Julius had also passed secrets. Another accused conspirator, Morton Sobell, was on vacation in Mexico City when both Rosenbergs were arrested. According to his story published in On Doing Time, he tried to figure out a way to reach Europe without a passport but ultimately abandoned that effort and was back in Mexico City when he was kidnapped by members of the Mexican secret police and driven to the U.S. border where he was arrested. The government claimed he had been deported, but in 1956 the Mexican government officially declared that he had never been deported. Regardless of how he was returned to the U.S., he was arrested and stood trial with the Rosenbergs on one count of conspiracy to commit espionage. [edit] Trial and conviction Police photograph of Julius Rosenberg after his arrest. Mugshot of Ethel Rosenberg. The trial of the Rosenbergs and Sobell began on March 6, 1951. The judge was Irving Kaufman, who, during the trial had said that they had committed a crime “worse than murder”[11]. The attorney for the Rosenbergs was Emanuel Hirsch Bloch.[12] The prosecution’s primary witness, David Greenglass, stated that his sister Ethel typed notes containing U.S. nuclear secrets in the Rosenberg apartment in September 1945. He also asserted that a sketch he made of a cross-section of an implosion-type atom bomb (the „Fat Man” bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, as opposed to a bomb with the „gun method” triggering device as used in the „Little Boy” bomb dropped on Hiroshima) was also turned over to Julius Rosenberg at that meeting. From the beginning, the trial attracted a high amount of media attention, like the trial of Alger Hiss. Aside from the Rosenbergs’ own defense during the trial, there was not one single public expression of doubt as to their guilt in any of the media (including the left-wing and Communist press) before or during the trial.[citation needed] The first break in the media unanimity would not occur until August 1951, when a series of articles ran in the left-wing newspaper The National Guardian. Only after the publication of those articles was a defense committee formed. However, between the trial and the executions there were widespread protests and claims of anti-Semitism. For example, Nobel Prize winner Jean-Paul Sartre called the case „a legal lynching which smears with blood a whole nation. By killing the Rosenbergs, you have quite simply tried to halt the progress of science by human sacrifice. Magic, witch-hunts, auto-da-fés, sacrifices — we are here getting to the point: your country is sick with fear… you are afraid of the shadow of your own bomb.”[13] Others, including non-Communists such as Albert Einstein and Nobel-Prize-winning atomic scientist and chemist Harold Urey,[citation needed] as well as Communists or left-leaning artists such as Nelson Algren, Dashiell Hammett, Jean Cocteau, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, protested the position of the American government in what some termed America’s Dreyfus Affair. In May 1951, Pablo Picasso wrote for French newspaper L’Humanité, „The hours count. The minutes count. Do not let this crime against humanity take place.”[14] Pope Pius XII also condemned the execution.[15] The all-black International Longshoremen’s Association Local 968 stopped working for a day in protest.[16] Cinema artists such as Fritz Lang and Bertolt Brecht registered their protest.[17] Although the notes allegedly typed by Ethel apparently contained little that was relevant to the Soviet atomic bomb project, this was sufficient evidence for the jury to convict on the conspiracy to commit espionage charge. It was suggested that part of the reason Ethel was indicted along with Julius was so that the prosecution could use her as a ‚lever’ to pressure Julius into giving up the names of others who were involved.[18] If that was the case, it did not work. On the witness stand, Julius asserted his right under the U.S. Constitution’s Fifth Amendment to not incriminate himself whenever asked about his involvement in the Communist Party or with its members. Ethel did similarly. Neither defendant was viewed sympathetically by the jury. Then-U.S. Deputy Attorney General William P. Rogers, when later asked about the failure of the indictment of Ethel to leverage a full confession by Julius, reportedly said, „She called our bluff.”[19] The Rosenbergs were convicted on March 29, 1951, and on April 5 were sentenced to death by Judge Irving Kaufman under Section 2 of the Espionage Act of 1917, 50 U.S. Code 32 (now 18 U.S. Code 794), which prohibits transmitting or attempting to transmit to a foreign government information „relating to the national defense.” The conviction helped to fuel Senator Joseph McCarthy’s investigations into anti-American activities by U.S. citizens. While their devotion to the Communist cause was well-documented, the Rosenbergs denied the espionage charges even as they faced the electric chair. The Rosenbergs were the only two American civilians to be executed for espionage-related activity during the Cold War.[20] In imposing the death penalty, Kaufman noted that he held them responsible not only for espionage but also for the deaths of the Korean War: “ I consider your crime worse than murder…I believe your conduct in putting into the hands of the Russians the A-Bomb years before our best scientists predicted Russia would perfect the bomb has already caused, in my opinion, the Communist aggression in Korea, with the resultant casualties exceeding 50,000 and who knows but that millions more of innocent people may pay the price of your treason. Indeed, by your betrayal you undoubtedly have altered the course of history to the disadvantage of our country. No one can say that we do not live in a constant state of tension. We have evidence of your treachery all around us every day for the civilian defense activities throughout the nation are aimed at preparing us for an atom bomb attack.[21] ” Their case has been at the center of the controversy over Communism in the United States ever since, with supporters steadfastly maintaining that their conviction was an egregious example of persecution typical of the „hysteria” of those times (see McCarthyism) and likening it to the witch hunts that marred Salem and medieval Europe (a comparison that provided the inspiration for Arthur Miller’s critically acclaimed play, The Crucible). After the publication of the series in The National Guardian and the formation of the National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, some Americans came to believe both Rosenbergs were innocent or received too harsh a punishment, and a grassroots campaign was started to try to stop the couple’s execution. Pope Pius XII appealed to President Dwight D. Eisenhower to spare the couple, but Eisenhower refused on February 11, 1953, and all other appeals were also unsuccessful.[22] On September 12, 2008, co-defendant Morton Sobell admitted that he and Julius Rosenberg were guilty of spying for the Soviet Union. He believed Ethel was aware of the espionage, but did not actively participate.[7] [edit] Execution The couple were executed at sundown in the electric chair at Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York, on June 19, 1953.[1][23] This was delayed from the originally scheduled date of June 18 because, on June 17, Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas had granted a stay of execution. That stay resulted from the intervention in the case of Fyke Farmer, a Tennessee lawyer whose efforts had previously met with scorn from the Rosenbergs’ attorney.[24] On June 18, the Court was called back into special session to dispose of Douglas’ stay rather than let the execution be delayed for months while the appeal that was the basis of the stay wended its way through the lower courts. The Court did not vacate Douglas’ stay until noon on June 19. Thus, the execution then was scheduled for later in the evening after the start of the Jewish Sabbath.[25] Desperately playing for more time, their lawyer, Emanuel Hirsch Bloch, filed a complaint that this offended their Jewish heritage, so the execution was scheduled before sunset. Eyewitness testimony (as given by a newsreel report featured in the 1982 documentary film The Atomic Cafe) describes the circumstances of the Rosenberg’s death, noting that while Julius Rosenberg died after the first series of electrocutions, his wife did not. After the normal course of electrocutions, attendants removed the strapping and other equipment only to have doctors determine that Mrs. Rosenberg had not yet died (her heart was still beating). Three courses of electrocution were ultimately applied, and at conclusion eyewitnesses reported a grisly scene with smoke rising from her head in the chamber. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were buried at Wellwood Cemetery in Pinelawn, New York.[25] [edit] Post execution [edit] Alexandre Feklisov According to Alexandre Feklisov, the former Soviet agent who was Julius’ contact, he had not provided Russia with any useful material about the atomic bomb, „He didn’t understand anything about the atomic bomb and he couldn’t help us.”[3] [edit] David Greenglass David Greenglass, Ethel Rosenberg’s brother and key prosecution witness, recanted his testimony about his sister’s typed notes. He stated in an interview in 2001: „I don’t know who typed it, frankly, and to this day I can’t remember that the typing took place. I had no memory of that at all—none whatsoever.”[20] He said he gave false testimony to protect himself and his wife, Ruth, and that he was encouraged by the prosecution to do so; „I would not sacrifice my wife and my children for my sister.”[20] He refused to express any remorse for his decision to sacrifice his sister, saying only that he did not realize that the death penalty would be invoked.[20] [edit] The Rosenbergs’ children The Rosenbergs’ two sons, Robert and Michael, spent years trying to prove the innocence of their parents, until 2008 when they admitted that their father had likely been involved after Sobell, at age 91, confessed.[26] The Rosenberg children were orphaned by the executions and no relatives adopted them. They were finally adopted by the songwriter Abel Meeropol and his wife Anne, and they assumed the Meeropol surname. Abel Meeropol (under the pen name of Lewis Allan) wrote the classic anti-lynching anthem „Strange Fruit”, made famous by singer Billie Holiday. Robert and Michael co-wrote a book about the experience, We Are Your Sons: The Legacy of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg (1975), and Robert wrote another book in 2003, An Execution in the Family: One Son’s Journey. In 1990, Robert founded the Rosenberg Fund for Children, a non-profit foundation that provides support for children of targeted progressive activists, and youth who are targeted activists themselves. Michael is listed as the Chair and Professor of Economics, School of Arts and Sciences, Economics at Western New England College in Springfield, Massachusetts. Michael’s daughter, Ivy Meeropol, directed a 2003 documentary about her grandparents, Heir to an Execution, which was featured at the Sundance Film Festival. Michael Meeropol and Robert Meeropol believe that „whatever atomic bomb information their father passed to the Russians was, at best, superfluous; the case was riddled with prosecutorial and judicial misconduct; their mother was convicted on flimsy evidence to place leverage on her husband; and neither deserved the death penalty.”[26] [edit] 2008 document release In a hearing, U.S. District Judge Alvin K. Hellerstein decided to make public the grand jury testimony of 36 of the 46 witnesses but not that of Greenglass. Citing the objections of Greenglass and two other living witnesses, the judge claimed that their privacy rights „overrides the public’s need to know.”[27] Georgetown University law professor David Vladeck argued on behalf of historical groups that because of recent interviews, Greenglass forfeited the privacy he now claims and that the testimony should be released. Judge Hellerstein was not moved. The testimony of the other seven witnesses will be released upon their consent, or confirmation that they are dead or not findable.[27] In September 2008, hundreds of pages of grand jury transcripts were released. With this release, it was revealed that Ruth Greenglass had irreconcilable differences in her grand jury testimony in August 1950 and the testimony she gave at trial. At the grand jury, Ruth Greenglass was asked, „Didn’t you write [the information] down on a piece of paper?”[28] She replied, „Yes, I wrote [the information] down a piece of paper and [Julius Rosenberg] took it with him.”[28] But, at the trial she testified that Ethel Rosenberg typed up notes about the atomic bomb.[28] [edit] Memoir of Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Khrushchev, leader of the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1964, wrote of the Rosenbergs in his memoir, published posthumously in 1990. According to the memoir, Kruschchev learned from Stalin and Vyacheslav M. Molotov that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg „had provided very significant help in accelerating the production of our atomic bomb.” Let this be a worthy tribute to the memory of those people, the memoir says of the Rosenbergs. Let my words serve as an expression of gratitude to those who sacrificed their lives to a great cause of the Soviet state at a time when the U.S. was using its advantage over our state to blackmail our state and undermine its proletarian cause. However, the director of the organization where the Soviet Union developed its first atomic bomb denied any involvement by the Rosenbergs. In 1989, Boris V. Brokhovich told The New York Times in an interview that development of the bomb had been a matter of trial and error. „You sat the Rosenbergs in the electric chair for nothing,” he said. „We got nothing from the Rosenbergs.”[29] [edit] Morton Sobell In 2008, after many years of denial, Morton Sobell finally admitted he was a Soviet spy and confirmed Julius Rosenberg was „in a conspiracy that delivered to the Soviets classified military and industrial information … [on] the atomic bomb.”[7] However, he stated that the hand-drawn diagrams and other atomic bomb details that were acquired by David Greenglass and passed to Julius were of „little value” to Soviet Union, and were used to corroborate what they had learned from the other atomic spies.[7] He also stated that Ethel Rosenberg was completely innocent; she was aware of her husband’s misdeeds, but took no part in it.[7] [edit] Fictional portrayals The Rosenbergs have figured in several film, television and literary works. Ethel Rosenberg is a major supporting character in Tony Kushner’s critically acclaimed play Angels in America, in which her ghost haunts a dying Roy Cohn. In the HBO 2003 miniseries adaptation of the play, she was portrayed by Meryl Streep. In the 1992 film Citizen Cohn, she is portrayed by Karen Ludwig. Faiz Ahmed Faiz, a celebrated revolutionary poet of South Asia, praised Julius and Ethel Rosenberg’s sacrifices in his poems which are now classics of Urdu poetry. The E. L. Doctorow novel, The Book of Daniel, is based on the Rosenberg case as seen through the eyes of the (fictionalized) son. It inspired the Sidney Lumet film, Daniel, starring Timothy Hutton. The other major novel dealing extensively with the case is Robert Coover’s The Public Burning. Unlike Doctorow, Coover uses real names for most protagonists of the case, and uses a fictionalized Richard Nixon as his narrator for half of the chapters. This sparked a long delay in the publication of the novel, since publishing houses feared lawsuits from people appearing as characters in the book. Further fictional treatments of the case are Tema Nason’s fictional autobiography Ethel and Millicent Dillon’s fictional biography Harry Gold. The first sentence of Sylvia Plath’s The Bell Jar is: „It was a queer, sultry summer, the summer they electrocuted the Rosenbergs, and I didn’t know what I was doing in New York. I’m stupid about executions.” References to the Rosenbergs continue throughout the novel. anonmyous 02.06.2009, 17:40 Odpowiedz (4) Zwiazek sowiecki rozprowadza atomowa wiedze wsrod bratnich krajow w tym Polski i Korei Pn (deportacja Infelda z kanady) Leopold Infeld (ur. 20 sierpnia 1898 w Krakowie, zm. 15 lutego 1968 w Warszawie), polski fizyk teoretyk. Autor prac z ogólnej teorii względności, teorii pola i elektrodynamiki. Pochodził z rodziny żydowskich kupców. Ukończył szkołę handlową, po czym studiował fizykę (początkowo wbrew woli ojca) na Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim. Doktorat uzyskał w 1921 roku, promotorem jego pracy doktorskiej był profesor Władysław Natanson. W 1920 podczas pobytu w Berlinie zetknął się z Einsteinem, uczęszczał na wykłady Maxa Plancka i Maxa von Lauego. Po studiach uczył w żydowskich gimnazjach w Koninie i Warszawie. Wtedy to napisał pierwsze prace naukowe. W 1930 został asystentem w katedrze Fizyki Teoretycznej na Uniwersytecie Jana Kazimierza we Lwowie. W 1932 podczas pobytu w Lipsku pisze dwie prace, które stają się początkiem jego międzynarodowej kariery. W pierwszej z tych prac (napisanej razem z holenderskim matematykiem van der Waerdenem) rozwinął tzw. rachunek spinorowy do postaci dającej się wykorzystać w ogólnej teorii względności (van der Waerden wprowadził wcześniej rachunek spinorowy do szczególnej teorii względności). W drugiej pracy Infeld znalazł postać równania Diraca w czasoprzestrzeniach ogólnej teorii względności. Kolejnym etapem w karierze naukowej Infelda był dwuletni pobyt w Cambridge w charakterze stypendysty Fundacji Rockefellera. Poznał tam Maxa Borna. Efektem ich współpracy było uogólnienie klasycznej elektrodynamiki Maxwella w taki sposób aby możliwy był nielinowy opis pola elektromagnetycznego (tzw. elektrodynamika nieliniowa lub elektrodynamika Borna-Infelda). Teoria ta była krokiem pośrednim na drodze do elektrodynamiki kwantowej. W 1936 roku zostaje stypendystą w Instytucie Studiów Zaawansowanych w Princeton i rozpoczyna współpracę z Albertem Einsteinem. Wynikiem tej współpracy był prace dotyczące równań ruchu w ogólnej teorii względności (tzw. teoria Einsteina-Infelda-Hoffmanna). Podczas dwuletniego pobytu w Princeton Infeld przy współpracy z Einsteinem napisał książkę The Evolution of Physics, która stała się międzynarodowym bestsellerem (w ciągu siedemdziesięciu lat od chwili publikacji miała ponad 200 wydań). W 1938 roku zostaje profesorem fizyki na Uniwersytecie Toronto w Kanadzie. Prace z tego okresu dotyczą kosmologii relatywistycznej i teorii faktoryzacji (jedna z metod rozwiązywania zagadniena własnego). W Toronto pracował Infeld do roku 1950. Kanadę był zmuszony opuścić po tym jak oskarżono go niesłusznie o kontakty z komunistami w Polsce i możliwości sprzedaży im tajemnic wojskowych (dotyczących broni nuklearnej). W 1950 roku objął katedrę fizyki teoretycznej na Uniwersytecie Warszawskim. Wspólnie z Wojciechem Rubinowiczem zakłada Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. Zostaje członkiem Polskiej Akademii Nauk (w 1952). W 1962 zorganizował w Warszawie konferencję naukową na temat postępów w fizyce relatywistycznej, na której pojawili się najwybitniejsi fizycy (m.in. Paul Dirac, Richard Feynman). Jego synem jest prof. Eryk Infeld, absolwent Uniwersytetu Cambridge i Wydziału Fizyki i Astronomii UW, od 1985 kierujący Pracownią Fizyki Plazmy Instytutu Badań Jądrowych, autor wielu prac, członek licznych międzynarodowych towarzystw naukowych. Doktorat pod kierownictwem Leopolda Infelda zrobił między innymi Włodzimierz Kołos. anonymous 02.06.2009, 17:39 Odpowiedz ZSSR szpieguje na USA ktore wie wiecej ze stref okupacyjnych Niemiec; atomowi szpiedzy Atomic Spies and Atom Spies are terms that refer to various people in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada who are thought to have illicitly given information about nuclear weapons production or design to the Soviet Union during World War II and the early Cold War. Exactly what was given, and whether everyone on the list gave it, is still a matter of some scholarly dispute, and in some cases what were originally seen as strong testimonies or confessions were admitted as fabricated in later years. Their work constitutes the most publicly well-known and well-documented case of nuclear espionage in the history of nuclear weapons. There was a movement among nuclear scientists to share the information with the world scientific community, but that was firmly quashed by the American government. The current case of the apparent sharing of nuclear technology with Iran, Libya, and North Korea and possibly other regimes on the part of Abdul Qadeer Khan, a Pakistani scientist considered a national hero because of his role in the construction of Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal, has yet to be fully explored, and it is an open question whether the term „atom spy” will be applied to those operating outside the Cold War orbit. Whether the information significantly aided the speed of the Soviet atomic bomb project is also disputed. While some of the information given, such as the highly technical theoretical information given by Klaus Fuchs, would be thought to have certainly aided in developing a nuclear weapon, the manner in which the heads of the Soviet bomb project, Igor Kurchatov and Lavrenty Beria, actually used the information has led later scholars to doubt its having had a role in increasing the speed of development. According to this account, Kurchatov and Beria used the information primarily as a „check” against their own scientists’ work and did not liberally share the information with them, distrusting both their own scientists as well as the espionage information. Later scholarship has also shown that the decisive brake on early Soviet development was not problems in weapons design but, as in the Manhattan Project, the difficulty in procuring fissile materials, especially since the Soviet Union had no uranium deposits known when it began its program (unlike the United States). Confirmation about espionage work came from the VENONA project, which intercepted and decrypted Soviet intelligence transcripts during and after World War II, and later records from Soviet archives, were briefly opened to researchers after the fall of the Soviet Union. Of the ten spies listed below, eight were of Jewish American ethnicity, with the remaining two May and Fuchs being English and German, respectively. Contents [hide] * 1 Notable atomic spies * 2 Gallery * 3 References * 4 Further reading [edit] Notable atomic spies * Morris Cohen – American, „Thanks to Cohen, designers of the Soviet atomic bomb got piles of technical documentation straight from the secret laboratory in Los Alamos,” the newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda said. Morris and his wife, Lona, served eight years in prison, less than half of their sentences before being released in a prisoner swap with Russia. He died without revealing the name of the American scientist who helped pass vital information about the United States atomic bomb project.[1] * Klaus Fuchs – German refugee and theoretical physicist who worked with the British delegation at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project. After Fuchs’ confession there was a trial that lasted less than 90 minutes, Lord Goddard sentenced him to fourteen years’ imprisonment, the maximum for espionage. In December 1950 he was stripped of his British citizenship. He was released on June 23, 1959, after serving nine years and four months of his sentence at Wakefield prison. He was allowed to emigrate to Dresden, then in the German Democratic Republic. [2][3] * Harry Gold – American, confessed to acting as a courier for Greenglass and Fuchs. He was sentenced in 1951 to thirty years imprisonment. He was paroled in May 1966, after serving just over half of his sentence.[4] * David Greenglass – an American machinist at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project. Greenglass confessed that he gave crude schematics of lab experiments to the Russians during World War II. Some aspects of his testimony against his sister and brother-in-law (the Rosenbergs, see below) are now thought to have been fabricated in an effort to keep his own wife, Ruth, from prosecution. Greenglass was sentenced to 15 years in prison, served 10 years, and later reunited with his wife.[5] * Theodore Hall – a young American physicist at Los Alamos, whose identity as a spy was not revealed until very late in the twentieth century. He was never tried for his espionage work, though he seems to have admitted to it in later years to reporters and to his family.[6] * Allan Nunn May – He was British, and one of the first Soviet spies uncovered during the cold war. He worked on the Manhattan Project and was betrayed by a Soviet defector in Canada. His was uncovered in 1946 and it led the United States to restrict the sharing of atomic secrets with Britain. On May 1, 1946, he was sentenced to ten years hard labour. He was released in 1952, after serving six and a half years.[7] * Ethel and Julius Rosenberg – Americans who were involved in coordinating and recruiting an espionage network that included Ethel’s brother, David Greenglass. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were tried for conspiracy to commit espionage, since the prosecution seemed to feel that there was not enough evidence to convict on espionage. Treason charges were not applicable, since the United States and the Soviet Union were allies at the time. The Rosenbergs denied all the charges but were convicted in a trial in which the prosecutor Roy Cohn said he was in daily secret contact with the judge, Irving Kaufman. Despite an international movement demanding clemency, and appeals to President Dwight D. Eisenhower by leading European intellectuals and the Pope, the Rosenbergs were executed at the height of the Korean War. President Eisenhower wrote to his son, serving in Korea, that if he spared Ethel (presumably for the sake of her children), then the Soviets would simply recruit their spies from among women.[8][9][10] * Saville Sax American acted as the courier for Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall.[6] * Morton Sobell – American engineer tried and convicted along with the Rosenbergs, was sentenced to 30 years imprisonment but released from Alcatraz in 1969, after serving 17 years and 9 months.[11] After proclaiming his innocence for over half a century, Sobell admitted spying for the Soviets, and implicated Julius Rosenberg, in an interview with the New York Times published on September 11, 2008.[12] anonymous 02.06.2009, 17:36 Odpowiedz (2) USA szpieguje na pro-Hitlerowskie Wlochy manhattan project In 1939, President Franklin Roosevelt called on Lyman Briggs of the National Bureau of Standards to head „The Uranium Committee” as a result of the Einstein-Szilárd letter. Even though Roosevelt had sanctioned the project, progress was slow and was not directed exclusively towards military applications. Meanwhile, in the United Kingdom, Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls made a breakthrough by discovering the fissile properties of uranium-235. A British committee, the MAUD Committee, concluded that an atomic bomb was „not only feasible, it was inevitable.” Their reports were sent to Briggs, but were ignored. One of the members of the MAUD Committee, Mark Oliphant, flew to the United States in late August 1941 to find out why the U.S. was ignoring the MAUD Committee’s findings. He reported that „this inarticulate and unimpressive man (Briggs) had put the reports in his safe and had not shown them to members of his committee.” Oliphant then met with the whole Uranium Committee and other physicists to galvanize the USA into action. As a result, in December 1941 Vannevar Bush created the larger and more powerful Office of Scientific Research and Development—which was empowered to engage in large engineering projects in addition to research—and became its director. Acceleration of the Project A few months after he was put in charge of fast neutron research, Berkeley physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer convened a conference on the topic of nuclear weapon design. Now that the bomb project was under the OSRD, the project leaders began to accelerate the work. Arthur Compton organized the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory in early 1942 to study plutonium and fission piles (primitive nuclear reactors), and asked theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer of the University of California, Berkeley to take over research on fast neutron calculations — key to calculations about critical mass and weapon detonation — from Gregory Breit. John Manley, a physicist at the Metallurgical Laboratory, was assigned to help Oppenheimer find answers by coordinating and contacting several experimental physics groups scattered across the country. During the spring of 1942, Oppenheimer and Robert Serber of the University of Illinois worked on the problems of neutron diffusion (how neutrons moved in the chain reaction) and hydrodynamics (how the explosion produced by the chain reaction might behave). To review this work and the general theory of fission reactions, Oppenheimer convened a summer study at the University of California, Berkeley, in June 1942. Theorists Hans Bethe, John Van Vleck, Edward Teller, Felix Bloch, Emil Konopinski, Robert Serber, Stanley S. Frankel, and Eldred C. Nelson (the latter three all former students of Oppenheimer) quickly confirmed that a fission bomb was feasible. There were still many unknown factors in the development of a nuclear bomb, however, even though it was considered to be theoretically possible. The properties of pure uranium-235 were still relatively unknown, as were the properties of plutonium, a new element which had only been discovered in February 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and his team. Plutonium was the product of uranium-238 absorbing a neutron which had been emitted from a fissioning uranium-235 atom, and was thus able to be created in a nuclear reactor. But at this point no reactor had yet been built, so while plutonium was being pursued as an additional fissile substance, it was not yet to be relied upon. Only microgram quantities of plutonium existed at the time (produced from neutrons derived from reaction started in a cyclotron). A number of the different fission bomb assembly methods explored during the summer 1942 conference, later reproduced as drawings in The Los Alamos Primer. In the end, only the „gun” method (at top) and a more complicated variation of the „implosion” design would be used. At the bottom are „autocatalytic method” designs. The scientists at the Berkeley conference determined that there were many possible ways of arranging the fissile material into a critical mass, the simplest being the shooting of a „cylindrical plug” into a sphere of „active material” with a „tamper”—dense material which would focus neutrons inward and keep the reacting mass together to increase its efficiency (this model „avoids fancy shapes”, Serber would later write).[5] They also explored designs involving spheroids, a primitive form of „implosion” (suggested by Richard C. Tolman), and explored the speculative possibility of „autocatalytic methods” which would increase the efficiency of the bomb as it exploded. Considering the idea of the fission bomb theoretically settled -at least until more experimental data was available- the conference then turned in a different direction. Hungarian physicist Edward „Ede” Teller pushed for discussion on an even more powerful bomb: the „Super”, which would use the explosive force of a detonating fission bomb to ignite a fusion reaction in deuterium and tritium. This concept was based on studies of energy production in stars made by Hans Bethe before the war, and suggested as a possibility to Teller by Enrico Fermi not long before the conference. When the detonation wave from the fission bomb moved through the mixture of deuterium and tritium nuclei, these would fuse together to produce much more energy than fission could. But Bethe was skeptical. As Teller pushed hard for his „superbomb”—now usually referred to as a „hydrogen bomb” — proposing scheme after scheme, Bethe refused each one. The fusion idea had to be put aside in order to concentrate on actually producing fission bombs. Teller also raised the speculative possibility that an atomic bomb might „ignite” the atmosphere, because of a hypothetical fusion reaction of nitrogen nuclei.[citation needed] Bethe calculated, according to Serber, that it could not happen. However, a report co-authored by Teller showed that ignition of the atmosphere was not impossible, just unlikely.[6] In Serber’s account, Oppenheimer mentioned it to Arthur Compton, who „didn’t have enough sense to shut up about it. It somehow got into a document that went to Washington” which led to the question being „never laid to rest”.[7] The conferences in the summer of 1942 provided the detailed theoretical basis for the design of the atomic bomb, and convinced Oppenheimer of the benefits of having a single centralized laboratory to manage the research for the bomb project rather than having specialists spread out at different sites across the United States. [edit] Project sites Though it involved over thirty different research and production sites, the Manhattan Project was largely carried out at four secret laboratories that were established by power of eminent domain in four cities: Los Alamos, New Mexico; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Richland, Washington; Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. The Tennessee site was chosen because of the vast quantities of cheap hydroelectric power already available there (due to the Tennessee Valley Authority) necessary to produce uranium-235 in giant ion separation magnets. The Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, was chosen for its location near the Columbia River, a river that could supply water to cool the reactors which would produce the plutonium. The Canadian site, Chalk River, Ontario, was chosen for its proximity to the industrial manufacturing of Ontario and Quebec, located on a rail head, adjacent to a large military base, Camp Petawawa, located on the Ottawa River it had access to abundant water. All the sites were suitably far from coastlines and therefore less vulnerable to possible enemy attack from Germany or Japan. The Los Alamos National Laboratory was built on a mesa that previously hosted the Los Alamos Ranch School, a private school for teenage boys. The site was chosen primarily for its remoteness. Oppenheimer had known of it from his horse-riding near his ranch in New Mexico, and he showed it as a possible site to the government representatives, who promptly bought it for $440,000. In addition to being the main „think-tank”, Los Alamos was responsible for final assembly of the bombs, mainly from materials and components produced by other sites. Manufacturing at Los Alamos included casings, explosive lenses, and fabrication of fissile materials into bomb cores. Oak Ridge facilities covered more than 60,000 acres (243 km²) of several former farm communities in the Tennessee Valley area. Some Tennessee families were given two weeks’ notice to vacate family farms that had been their homes for generations.[citation needed] So secret was the site during World War II that the state governor was unaware that Oak Ridge (which was to become the fifth largest city in the state) was being built. At one point Oak Ridge plants were consuming 1/6th of the electrical power produced in the U.S., more than New York City. Oak Ridge mainly produced uranium-235. Chalk River, was established to house the allied effort that was going on at McGill University, in Montreal. Since the site was 120 miles west of Ottawa, a new community was also built at Deep River, Ontario to be the home of the project team members. Both were established in 1944, with scientists, engineers, trades from Canada, Britain, Wales, Scotland, New Zealand, Australia, France, Norway, etc. providing their contribution to the war effort. The Hanford Site, which grew to almost 1,000 square miles (2,600 km²), took over irrigated farm land, fruit orchards, a railroad, and two farming communities, Hanford and White Bluffs, in a sparsely populated area adjacent to the Columbia River. Hanford hosted nuclear reactors cooled by the river and was the plutonium production center. The existence of these sites and the secret cities of Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Richland, and Chalk River were not made public until the announcement of the Hiroshima explosion, and the sites remained secret until after the end of WWII. The project originally was headquartered at 270 Broadway in Manhattan. Other offices were scattered throughout the city,[8] including the New York Friars’ Club building.[9] The Broadway headquarters lasted little more than a year before it was moved in 1943, although many of the other offices in Manhattan remained.[10] A selection of U.S. sites important to the Manhattan Project. Major Manhattan Project sites and subdivisions included: * Site W (Hanford, Washington): a plutonium production facility (now Hanford Site) * Site X (Oak Ridge, Tennessee): enriched uranium production and plutonium production research (now Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Site X also included: o X-10 Graphite Reactor: graphite reactor research pilot plant (on the site of what is now Oak Ridge National Laboratory) o Y-12: electromagnetic separation uranium enrichment plant o K-25: gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plant o S-50: thermal diffusion uranium enrichment plant * Site Y (Los Alamos, New Mexico): a bomb research laboratory (now Los Alamos National Laboratory) * Metallurgical Laboratory (Chicago, Illinois): reactor development (now Argonne National Laboratory) * Project Alberta (Wendover, Utah and Tinian): preparations for the combat delivery of the bombs * Project Ames (Ames, Iowa): production of raw uranium metal (now Ames Laboratory) * Dayton Project (Dayton, Ohio): research and development of polonium refinement and industrial production of polonium for atomic bomb triggers * Project Camel (Inyokern, California): high explosives research and non-nuclear engineering for the Fat Man bomb * Project Trinity (Alamogordo, New Mexico): preparations for the testing of the first atomic bomb * Radiation Laboratory (Berkeley, California): electromagnetic separation enrichment research (now Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) * Project ‚9’ (Trail, British Columbia): heavy water (deuterium) production.[11] [edit] Need for coordination This article is missing citations or needs footnotes. Please help add inline citations to guard against copyright violations and factual inaccuracies. (April 2008) The measurements of the interactions of fast neutrons with the materials in a bomb were essential; because the scientists needed to know the number of neutrons produced in the fission of uranium and plutonium, and because the substance surrounding the nuclear material needed the ability to reflect, or scatter, neutrons back into the chain reaction before it was blown apart – this in order to increase the energy produced. Therefore, the neutron scattering properties of materials had to be measured to find the best reflectors. Estimating the explosive power required knowledge of many other nuclear properties, including the cross section (a measure of the probability of an encounter between particles that result in a specified effect) for nuclear processes of neutrons in uranium and other elements. Fast neutrons could only be produced in particle accelerators, which were still relatively uncommon instruments in 1942. The need for better coordination was clear. By September 1942, the difficulties in conducting studies on nuclear weapons at universities scattered throughout the country indicated the need for a laboratory dedicated solely to that purpose. A greater need was the construction of industrial plants to produce uranium-235 and plutonium—the fissionable materials to be used in the weapons. Vannevar Bush, the head of the civilian Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), asked President Roosevelt to assign the operations connected with the growing nuclear weapons project to the military. Roosevelt chose the Army to work with the OSRD in building production plants. The Army Corps of Engineers selected Col. James Marshall to oversee the construction of factories to separate uranium isotopes and manufacture plutonium for the bomb. Marshall and his deputy, Col. Kenneth Nichols, struggled to understand the proposed processes and the scientists with whom they had to work. Thrust into the new field of nuclear physics, they felt unable to distinguish between technical and personal preferences. Although they decided that a site near Knoxville, Tennessee, would be suitable for the first production plant, they did not know how large the site needed to be, and thus delayed its acquisition. Because of its experimental nature, the nuclear weapons work could not compete for priority with the Army’s more urgent tasks. The scientists’ construction of the work and production plants were often delayed by Marshall’s inability to obtain critical materials -such as steel- needed in other military projects. Even selecting a name for the project was difficult. The title chosen by Gen. Brehon B. Somervell, „Development of Substitute Materials,” objectionable because it seemed to reveal too much. [edit] Manhattan Engineer District General Leslie Groves (left) was appointed the military head of the Manhattan Project, while Robert Oppenheimer (right) was the scientific director. Vannevar Bush became dissatisfied with Col. James Marshall’s failure to get the project moving forward expeditiously and made this known to Secretary of War Stimson and Army Chief of Staff George Marshall. Marshall then directed General Somervell to replace Col. Marshall with a more energetic officer as director. In the summer of 1942, Col. Leslie Groves was deputy to the chief of construction for the Army Corps of Engineers and had overseen the very rapid construction of the Pentagon, the world’s largest office building. He was widely respected as an intelligent, hard driving, though brusque officer who got things done in a hurry. Hoping for an overseas command, Groves vigorously objected when Somervell appointed him to the weapons project. His objections were overruled, and Groves resigned himself to leading a project he thought had little chance of success. Groves appointed Oppenheimer as the project’s scientific director, to the surprise of many. (Oppenheimer’s radical political views were thought to pose security problems). However, Groves was convinced Oppenheimer was a genius who could talk about and understand nearly anything, and he was convinced such a man was needed for a project such as the one being proposed. Groves renamed the project The Manhattan Engineer District. The name evolved from the Corps of Engineers practice of naming districts after its headquarters’ city (Marshall’s headquarters were in New York City). At that time, Groves was promoted to brigadier general, giving him the rank necessary to deal with senior people whose cooperation was required, or whose own projects were hampered by Groves’ top-priority project. Within a week of his appointment, Groves had solved the Manhattan Project’s most urgent problems. His forceful and effective manner was soon to become all too familiar to the atomic scientists. The first major scientific hurdle of the project was solved on December 2, 1942, beneath the bleachers of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, where a team led by Enrico Fermi, for whom Fermilab is named, initiated the first artificial [12] self sustaining nuclear chain reaction in an experimental nuclear reactor named Chicago Pile-1. A coded phone call from Compton saying, „The Italian navigator [referring to Fermi] has landed in the new world, the natives are friendly” to Conant in Washington, D.C., brought news of the experiment’s success. [edit] Uranium bomb A gun-type nuclear bomb. The Hiroshima bomb, Little Boy, was made from uranium-235, a rare isotope of uranium that has to be physically separated from the more plentiful uranium-238 isotope, which is not suitable for use in an explosive device. Since U-235 makes up only 0.7% of raw uranium and is chemically identical to the 99.3% of U-238, various physical methods were considered for separation. Most of the uranium enrichment work was performed at Oak Ridge. Control panels and operators for calutrons at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. One method of separating uranium 235 from raw uranium ore was devised by Franz Simon and Nicholas Kurti, two Jewish émigrés, at Oxford University. Their method using gaseous diffusion
  2. III Rzesza probuje zbudowac bombe atomowa przy braku
    silnego poparcia Hitlera z powodu powiazania teorii z tzw. „niearyjska
    zydowska Nauka”

    Unlike the United States’ Manhattan Project, the WWII German Kernphysik (Nuclear Physics) program was never able to produce a critical nuclear reactor, despite many attempts by physicists Werner Heisenberg and Kurt Diebner. The German attempt to build a reactor was feeble and disorganized — and their effort to build an atomic weapon nonexistent — but the Allies didn’t know that. At the end of the war, an Allied fact-finding mission captured the subcritical uranium piles and sent them to the United States.

    Werner Heisenberg, a German theoretical physicist, proposed in 1925 in his famous Uncertainty Principle that we can know either the position or the momentum of a subatomic particle, but not both. Further, Heisenberg said, the more precisely we know the particle’s momentum, the less we can know about its position. At the atomic scale, Newton’s laws of classical mechanics give way to mathematical functions, developed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1926, that describe particle behavior in terms of probabilities. The work of Heisenberg and Schrödinger is the foundation of quantum mechanics, the theory that has proved eminently successful in describing and predicting the behavior of subatomic particles. Heisenberg is most famous for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, but also spent much of his career investigating the complex dynamics of turbulence.

    Edward Teller received his Ph.D. in physics in 1930 at the University of Leipzig in Germany, where he helped Werner Heisenberg lay the foundation of nuclear physics.

    The nuclear arms race began with the race to develop the atomic bomb. Many dates and events could be chosen as the starting point. In 1932 James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of the neutron, or non-charged particle, within the nucleus of an atom. Later that year, J.D.Cockroft and E.T.S.Walton successfully split lithium atoms in a particle accelerator. In 1933, Leo Szilard first envisioned the dual potential of the atom when he surmised that the collision of neutrons within a chain reaction would release energy and speculated on the use of this energy in making bombs. Szilard formalized these thoughts in a patent application on July 4, 1934 that described how explosions could be induced through chain reactions and introduced the concept of critical mass. It would be 2 years, however, before the British Admiralty accepted Szilard ’s offer of his patents.

    In contrast to prevailing studies that required a high energy source to accelerate positive-charged proton beams and alpha particles,Enrico Fermi experimentally bombarded 63 elements with neutrons, reasoning that little resistance would be encountered by uncharged particles entering the nucleus.One of the experimental elements was uranium. Over the next several years, the international scientific community focused on neutron bombardment as a more promising technology for splitting atoms and uranium as a key element. Enrico Fermi’s team at the University of Rome originally thought that their bombardment of uranium by slow neutrons in the mid-1930s had produced elements heavier than uranium, or transuranic elements. By experiments which were carried out during the years 1936-38, Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner believed they could confirm Fermi’s statement that the transuranium elements are formed by irradiating the heaviest elements with neutrons.

    It is generally accepted that the atomic age began in Berlin with the discovery in 1938 that uranium can undergo nuclear fission. Earlier workers had achieved fission by bombarding uranium with neutrons, but did not recognize it as such.

    When the discovery of nuclear fission was first reported in January 1939, it appeared that the chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann had performed the crucial experiments, while the physicists Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch provided the first theoretical explanation of the fission process. Historical accounts have tended to emphasize that divide ever since, as did the award of the Nobel Prize in chemistry to Hahn alone. But history and the published record can be deceptive, and Nobel committees can make mistakes. Meitner was not present when the crucial experiments were made, having been forced to flee Berlin to exile in Sweden in the summer of 1938, when her native Austria was annexed by the Nazis. Meitner and nuclear physics were crucial to the discovery, but that Meitner’s role was obscured by her forced emigration, the political conditions in Nazi Germany, and the deliberate “forgetting” of the postwar period.

    Late in 1938, Lise Meitner, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman discovered the phenomenon of atomic fission. Meitner worked in Germany with physicists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann until fleeing to Sweden to escape Nazi persecution. From her work in Germany, Meitner knew the nucleus of uranium-235 splits (fission) into two lighter nuclei when bombarded by a neutron. Interestingly, the sum of the particles derived from fission are not equal in mass to the original nucleus. During a visit with her nephew, Meitner speculated that release of energy–energy a hundred million times greater than normally released in the chemical reaction between two atoms–accounted for the difference. Still somewhat nervous about their finding, Frisch approached the eminent Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, who grasped the concept immediately with much enthusiasm.

    Hahn published the experimental results in Naturwissenschaften on December 21, 1938. Meitner was not credited in the report signed by Hahn and Strassmann. Frisch, however, confirmed her explanation in a separate physics experiment in England. Hahn feared the result would be rejected if it were known to be tainted by “Jewish science” — female Jewish science at that — that he might even lose his position, and that all of German science might thereby suffer.

    On January 13, 1939, Otto Frisch substantiated these results and, together with Lise Meitner, calculated the unprecedented amount of energy released. Frisch applied the term “fission,” from biological cell division, to name this process. Bohr sailed for the U.S. shortly thereafter, and upon his arrival announced the discovery on January 26, 1939, at the Princeton Monday Evening Journal Club, a weekly gathering of Princeton physicists. Almost immediately, related work emerged nearly everywhere.

    On August 31, Bohr and John A.Wheeler, working at Princeton University, published their theory that the isotope uranium-235,present in trace quantities within uranium-238, was more fissile than uranium-238 and should become the focus of uranium research. In this publication, they also postulated that a then unnamed,unobserved transuranic element (referred to simply as 94 239 or, more descriptively,as “high octane ”) produced during fissioning of uranium-238 would be highly fissionable.

    Enrico Fermi and exiled Hungarian physicist Leo Szilard, realized the first split or fission could cause a second, and so on in a series of chain reactions expanding in geometric progression. They agreed not to publish their findings, lest Germany use them to produce a super weapon. Instead, Szilard and émigré Eugene Wigner persuaded Albert Einstein to write President Franklin D. Roosevelt and request atomic research receive high priority.

    Physicists everywhere soon realized that if chain reactions could be tamed, fission could lead to a promising new source of power. What was needed was a substance that could “moderate” the energy of neutrons emitted in radioactive decay, so that they could be captured by other fissionable nuclei. Heavy water was a prime candidate for the job.

    After the discovery of fission, Heisenberg was recruited to work on a chain-reacting pile in September 1939 by Nazi physicist Kurt Diebner. While the Americans under Enrico Fermi chose graphite to slow down, or “moderate,” the neutrons produced in the fission of uranium 235 so that they could cause further fissions in a chain reaction, Heisenberg chose heavy water.

    Heisenberg calculated the critical mass for a bomb in a December 6, 1939 report for the German Army Weapons Department. His formula, with the nuclear parameter values assumed at that time, yielded a critical mass in the hundreds of tons of “nearly pure” uranium 235 (U235) required for an exploding reactor, Heisenberg’s model for a bomb at that point. This was vastly beyond what Germany could hope to produce. With uranium out of the question, the Germans decided to go for plutonium, which meant building an atomic pile [a nuclear reactor] to convert natural uranium into plutonium.

    In March 1940, Otto Frisch met up with Rudolf Peierls in the United Kingdom, and they argued that if uranium 235 (0.7% naturally occurring) could be extracted from naturally occurring uranium 238, the amount needed for an atomic bomb could be measured in kilograms, rather than the early estimates of tons. They also suggested that, if the fissile component of the weapon was made in two parts each less than the critical mass, the bomb could be set off simply by bringing the two parts rapidly together.

    In 1941, one of the leading German scientists at the University of Heidelberg, Walther Böthe, a highly regarded German physicist, greatly underestimated the diffusion path length of slow neutrons in graphite, apparently because graphite of inadequate purity was used in the German studies. Consequently, the German scientists selected heavy water as the moderator, rather than graphite, which was used in the U.S. program. These results were based upon mistaken calculations and gave Fermi an advantage. Heavy water was also chosen because Heisenberg’s early experiments with paraffin as a moderator failed to produce any chain reaction.

    German interest in heavy water was a major factor in the race to build the A-bomb. When, in late 1939, the Germans began ordering heavy water in very large quantities, Norsk Hydro management suspected “some kind of deviltry.” Frédéric Joliot knew perfectly well what kind of deviltry, and with the cooperation of Norsk Hydro, the French managed to spirit the company’s entire stock of heavy water, some 185 kilograms, out of the country.

    Heisenberg’s first experiments with heavy water at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute in Berlin-Dahlem and in Leipzig, Germany, were encouraging enough for him to promote nuclear energy to the German government.

    The very scanty contact with the German physicists during the occupation contributed – as already mentioned – to strenghten the impression that the German authorities attributed great military importance to atomic energy. Werner Heisenberg and his mentor Niels Bohr had a pivotal meeting in September 1941 in Copenhagen. Bohr, a Jew, was living in occupied Denmark but had contact with physicists on the Allied side. Heisenberg’s covert trip at great risk to see Bohr and his wife, Margrethe, in Copenhagen results in disaster. Something in this meeting destroyed their longstanding friendship. According to Bohr, Heisenberg travelled to Copenhagen to brag about his German colleagues’ progress in building the bomb. Bohrwas shocked at his former student’s nationalistic zeal. At the time Bohr had no knowledge of what the Allies were doing. Werner Heisenberg and C.F. von Weizsäcker were in Copenhagen on other business, but in a private conversation with Heisenberg they brought up the question of the military applications of atomic energy. Heisenberg expressed his scepticism because of the great technical difficulties that had to be overcome, but Heisenberg thought that the new possibilities could decide the outcome of the war if the war dragged on.

    Heisenberg warned the German government in the fall of 1941 that the Americans were pursuing a nuclear explosive (plutonium) that could be made in a chain-reacting pile. The warning resulted in receiving the highest priority for his work from Albert Speer, Hitler’s minister of munitions.

    Weizsäcker had stated how fortunate it would be for the position of science in Germany after the victory to help so significantly towards this end with atomic weapons. But there was no possibility of carrying out such a large undertaking in Germany before the end of the war.

    The German scientists had produced nuclear fission in the laboratory. They had also been looking at nuclear fusion and U-235 separations and were approaching criticality in a nuclear pile in a cave at Haigerloch. Their nuclear program was inhibited somewhat by a lack of enthusiasm on the part of Adolph Hitler, who believed the time frame was too long, and even more so by a serious miscalculation in its early stages.

    After the War, Heisenberg recounted “It was a new situation for us scientists in Germany. Now for the first time we could get money from our government to do something interesting and we intended to use this situation. The official slogan of the government was: We must make use of physics for warfare…. We felt already in the beginning that if it were possible at all to actually make explosives it would take such a long time and require such an enormous effort that there was a very good chance the War would be over before that could be accomplished…. We definitely did not want to get into this bomb business. I wouldn’t like to idealize this; we did this also for our personal safety. We thought that the probability that this would lead to atomic bombs during the War was nearly zero. If we had done otherwise, and if many thousand people had been put to work on it and then if nothing had been developed, this could have had extremely disagreeable consequences for us.”

    On 26 February 1942, Heisenberg spoke at a Berlin conference organized to garner support for the fission project. Heisenberg reported that a reactor could be used to power submarines, and to generate “…a new substance (element 94) …which in all probability is an explosive with the same unimaginable effectiveness as pure uranium-235.”

    Until 1942 Heisenberg headed a small reactor research group in Leipzig and advised a second, larger group in Berlin. Heisenberg built an early experimental pile in Leipzig, alternating layers of uranium and paraffin, to test the properties of a chain reaction. The Leipzig pile burned in a fire caused by a pyrophoric reaction of its powdered uranium with air.

    Allied bombing of Berlin forced Heisenberg to move his materials to Haigerloch in Wurttemberg, Germany. In 1944 it was rented by the Kaiser-Wilhelm-lnstitut für Physik (Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics) in Berlin. The Atomkeller is a long, rectangular room, the walls are the rough, undisguised rock face. The whole tunnel reminds its original origin: an (uncompleted) railroad tunnel. The reactor prototype was once located at the end of this tunnel. The famous “B8″-experiment was carried out at the end of March and the beginning of April 1945. The reactor didn’t become critical. Further calculations showed that a functioning nuclear reactor would have had to be about 1.5 times the size of this reactor. However, expanding the reactor was no longer possible in April 1945 due to the lack of both heavy water and additional quantities of uranium blocks.

    The US Army Air Corps bombed the German nuclear production works near Berlin. Thus ended the German nuclear threat. Although General Groves was aware of this fact, he did not pass the information on to the scientists in the Manhattan Project.

    In 1944, as Germany was falling, the Alsos Mission under Lieutenant Colonel Boris Pash and Samuel Goudsmit, its civilian scientist, gathered information on all aspects of Germany’s advanced technology, particularly the development of atomic energy. The American intelligence force quickly nabbed all the German nuclear documentation and scientists they could find to keep them out of the hands of the Soviets. (Alsos was a thinly disguised code name; in Greek it means “grove.”) The mission found that the Germans working on an atomic bomb under Werner Heisenberg were far behind the United States.

    Hahn, who was involved with the desultory German effort to harness atomic power, was awarded the 1944 Nobel Prize (delayed in presentation until 1946) by an uninformed prize committee. Possibly anxious to defend the status of German science in the postwar years, he never bothered to correct the record.

    A persistent historical debate still rages about the motivations of Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and the other members of the German “Uranium Club.” The 1993 book by the journalist Thomas Powers, “Heisenberg’s War,” argued that Heisenberg destroyed the German project from within. But Heisenberg, who was not a Nazi, compromised his principles by acquiescing in Nazi rule because he believed that it would return Germany to “its rightful place” as an economic and military leader in the world. Did he delay the German bomb project in order to prevent the Nazis from acquiring the bomb–as he claimed–or were they were not able to develop a bomb because they were unabile?

    After the war Heisenberg maintained that he understood the principles of an atomic bomb, but that he had deliberately misled the German program into concentrating on reactors. In fact, under Heisenberg, everything was being done in Germany to develop atomic weapons.

    After the war, Heisenberg and nine of his colleagues were interned at Farm Hall, a British country house. Hidden microphones recorded their reaction to the bombing of Hiroshima. Heisenberg did not understand bomb physics, and had vastly overestimated how much U-235 was needed. At Farm Hall Heisenberg had calculated that the amount of fissionable material necessary for a bomb was somewhere in the range of several metric tons.

    The Germans were forced to forswear the production of atomic, biological, and chemical weapons as part of the Paris Treaties of 1955 (embodying the so­called Adenauer “nonnuclear pledge”), which cleared the way politically for West Germany to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

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